Lundberg is unique in offering flooded forced circulation concentrator technology to the paper industry. This technology utilizes forced liquor circulation through the tube side of a heater with the liquor under a backpressure to prevent boiling. The superheated liquor is discharged into a flash tank (vapor head) where it is allowed to expand and equalize at a lower temperature. The change in temperature results in evaporation of water from the liquor. This process is particularly suited to liquors with a high scaling tendency since there is no change in composition of the liquor on the heating surface. Further, because the liquor is forced through the tubes, the tube bundle is flooded and there is no concern about liquor distribution.